The importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is paramount. If initial investigations for infectious agents prove negative, other diagnoses must be considered promptly. How to pronounce plaquenil Hydroxychloroquine sulfate drug classification Autoimmune encephalitis refers to a group of conditions that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy brain cells, leading to inflammation of the brain. People with autoimmune encephalitis may have various neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms. Autoimmune encephalitis causes subacute deficits of memory and cognition, often followed by suppressed level of consciousness or coma. A careful history and examination may show early clues to particular autoimmune causes, such as neuromyotonia, hyperekplexia, psychosis, dystonia, or the presence of particular tumors. Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes that can be severe and prolonged. In contrast to the classic paraneoplastic disorders that are poorly responsive to tumor treatment and immunotherapy, autoimmune encephalitis often responds to these treatments, and patients can have full or marked recoveries. We describe four patients with autoimmune encephalitis—3 auto-antibody positive, 1 auto-antibody negative—treated during the last 18 months. Autoimmune encephalitides are being increasingly recognized as important (and potentially reversible) non-infectious causes of an encephalitic syndrome. Scholarly articles plaquenil autoimmune encep halitis Autoimmune Encephalitis What Psychiatrists Need to Know., The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis Hydroxychloroquine mechanism of action usmleHydroxychloroquine 100 mg tabletsHydroxychloroquine sulphate tablets ip Autoimmune encephalitis is one of the most rapidly growing research topics in neurology. Along with discoveries of novel antibodies associated with the disease, clinical experience and outcomes with diverse immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of autoimmune encephalitis are accumulating. Treatment strategies for autoimmune encephalitis - Yong.. Autoimmune encephalitis update Neuro-Oncology Oxford.. An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists.. Advances in autoimmune encephalitis research in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to these disorders. However, existing criteria for autoimmune encephalitis are too reliant on antibody testing and response to immunotherapy, which might delay the diagnosis. In this issue of Neurology ®, de Bruijn et al.1 report the difference in efficacy between immunotherapy and antiseizure medications ASMs in the treatment of seizures secondary to autoimmune encephalitis. Immunotherapy efficacy clearly exceeded that of ASMs in this cohort with anti–leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 LGI1, anti-NMDA receptor NMDAR, and anti–gamma-aminobutyric acid B. In recent years, new antibodies have been discovered which mediate autoimmune encephalitis. This immunological response can be triggered by an infection or a tumor. Classical onconeuronal antibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal agents but recently, a novel group of antibodies to neuronal cell-surface and synaptic antigens associated with different CNS-syndromes, has been discovered.